Insufficienza cardiaca

L’insufficienza cardiaca (o scompenso cardiaco cronico) è una sindrome definita come la scarsa capacità del cuore a fornire il sangue ossigenato in quantità necessaria e sufficiente all’organismo. Molto spesso per riuscire a fornire quantità minime, il cuore si sottopone ad un lavoro enorme per i suoi ventricoli.Si stima che, con l’invecchiamento della popolazione e il numero sempre maggiore di pazienti sopravvissuti ad infarto del miocardio, l’incidenza dell’insufficienza cardiaca sia in continua crescita. Tra le cause più comuni di insufficienza cardiaca, troviamo l’infarto del miocardio, l’ischemia miocardica, l’ipertensione, le valvulopatie, le cardiomiopatie, le malattie cardiometaboliche, le malattie autoimmuni. Alcuni dati epidemiologici: in Italia circa il 5% della popolazione (circa 3.000.000 di persone) è affetto da insufficienza cardiaca.L’invecchiamento è una condizione molto importante come rischio, l’incidenza è bassa nelle persone tra i 40 e i 50 anni, mentre sale fino al 10% nelle persone con età superiore ai 75 anni. L’Insufficienza cardiaca è direttamente coinvolta nelle cause di morte “naturali” (morte per vecchiaia senza patologie appurate)infatti quando la contrattilità cardiaca si riduce progressivamente, l’effetto finale è una scarsa irrorazione degli organi vitali ( per es: cervello, rene e fegato) con conseguente deterioramento delle loro funzioni.I fattori di rischio in Italia, possono essere riassunti come segue: la cardiopatia ischemica 40%la cardiomiopatia dilatativa (diabete, obesità, fumo, cardiomiopatie ereditarie..)  32%le valvulopatie (stenosi, insufficienza valvolare, etc.) 12%l’ipertensione arteriosa 11%altri fattori (miocardite, iper-ipotiroidismo, Morbo di Paget, uso di chemioterapici, alcool, etc.) 5%. La malnutrizione in questi pazienti è un elemento da non sottovalutare, e, è sempre opportuno arricchire la dieta con proteine nobili in grado di migliorare il ricambio delle cellule cardiache.

 

 

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